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Articles on computer music

Computer music software


Articles and internet sites on Theory and Technique in Digital Sound Processing and Computational Theory

ACROE Physical modelling Sound Library

Algorithmic, Geometric, and Combinatorial Problems in Computational Music Theory
by Godfried T. Toussaint, McGill University, School of Computer Science (pdf link)

Analysis and synthesis of musical sounds

A Computer Program for Brass Instrument Optimization Part I.
Concept and Implementation. Prof. Mag. Gregor Widholm, page of publications

A Basic Introduction to Digital Waveguide Synthesis (for the Technically Inclined)
by Julius O. Smith, Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA) Department of Music, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 USA

Computational Physical Models Suitable as Real-Time Synthesis Models

Digital Signal Processing
From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Exploring Dither in Floating-Point Systems
by Nika Aldrich (pdf link)

The Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Synthesis Wiki

Fast implementation of the DFT - coded in C and under General Public License (GPL)

Mathematics of the discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) with audio applications
by Julius O. Smith Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA) Department of Music, Stanford University

Musical Sound Modeling With Sinusoids Plus Noise
by Xavier Serra. Audiovisual Institute, Pompeu Fabra University

Music synthesis approaches sound quality of real instruments
by John Chowning

Physical Modeling Synthesis
by 1996 Scott Lehman

Physical Modeling on the Nord Modular G2 
Chet Singer

Recurrence and sound material identity in acousmatic composition
Ambrose Seddon, City University, London. Department of Music

Sound On Sound: Technique
Music recording magazine with a techniques and elaboration of the sound

Sound Synthesis Project
Sound Synthesis project - is an attempt to create an easy to extend, easy to use set of tools for fast and covenient sound modeling. SDK (Sound development kit ;) ) includes modules for: Describing the instrument, Analyze properties, Playing music

Sound Synthesis of the Harpsichord Using a Computationally Efficient Physical Model
by Vesa Välimäki, Henri Penttinen, Jonte Knif, Mikael Laurson, and Cumhur Erkut

Speech Processing Group (internet site)

Speech and Language Processing: An Introduction to Natural Language Processing, Computational Linguistics, and Speech Recognition
by  Daniel Jurafsky and  James H. Martin with contributions from: Andrew Kehler  (Chapter 18) Keith Vander Linden  (Chapter 20) Nigel Ward (Chapter 21)

The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing
by Steven W. Smith, Ph.D

The Theory and Technique of Electronic Music
by Miller Puckette (pdf link)

Tutorial for Frequency Modulation Synthesis
by Barry Truax

UE Méthodes mathématiques pour l’informatique musicale [MMIM]
by Marc Chemillier - Moreno Andreatta, Equipe Représentations Musicales, IRCAM/CNRS (pdf link)

Virtual Violin
by Michael Schreiner

Articles on Musical Composition Assisted by Computer

An Introduction to the Computer Assisted Composition at Ircam : PatchWork & OpenMusic
Carlos Agon, Gérard Assayag, Mikael Laurson, Camilo Rueda. Ircam, Paris. Sibelius Academy, Helsinski.

Essay for the Differentiation Process Composing Music by Composing Rules: Computer Aided Composition employing Constraint Logic Programming
by Torsten Anders, Sonic Arts Research Centre Queens University Belfast, Northern Ireland

Fifteen Years of Computer-Assisted Composition
by Stephen Travis Pope Computer Music Journal, And Cnmat, Dept. Of Music, U. C. Berkeley (pdf link)

Grammar-Based Music Composition
by J. McCormack, Computer Science Department Monash University, Clayton Victoria

 Integrating Constraint Programming in Visual Musical Composition
by Camilo Rueda, Mikael Laurson, Geroges Bloch and Gerard Assayag - IRCAM 

Problèmes de quantification et de transcription en composition assistée par ordinateur
y Gérard Assayag, Peter Hanappe, Carlos Agon, Joshua Fineberg - IRCAM

 Representing Musical Hierarchies with Constraints

Common Lisp

Common Lisp: A Gentle Introduction to Symbolic Computation
by David S. Touretzky

International Lisp Conference - Tutorials
Extended Tutorial: Common Lisp in One Day, Making Environments Accessible in Common Lisp, SWCLOS: Semantic Web Processing in CLOS, Music Composition in Lisp


Musical composition assisted by computer

PWGL - A Visual Programming Language
For mac and windows. An excellent FREE software not only for the composition assisted by computer. Unfortunately it has not a good documentation for dummies.

OpenMusic (OM) is a visual programming environment for creating computer aided composition applications (for Mac OS9, Mac OSX, Windows version).

AC Toolbox
The AC Toolbox is a Macintosh  application to assist the algorithmic composition of music.

Computer Aided Algorithmic Music Composition Links Page
This site provides a comprehensive research resource for computer aided algorithmic music composition, including over one-thousand research listings, over one hundred system listings, cross referenced links to research, links to software downloads and documentation, and web-based tools for searching and filtering the complete lexicon.

Music Notation Software

Freeware, open source music notation program for Linux.

Common Music Notation
CMN (Common Music Notation) is a free western music notation package written in Common Lisp. Freeware, multi-platform.

Denemo is a graphical musical score editor, and serves as a frontend to Lilypond. Runs on Windows and Linux.


LilyPond is an automated engraving system. It formats music beautifully and automatically, and has a friendly syntax for its input files. It is Free Software (‘open source’).

Probably, since this moment, the better free music notation software with a WYSIWYNG interface.

NoteAbility Pro
NoteAbility Pro is a professional music notation package for the Macintosh OS-X operating system. Developed by Dr. Keith Hamel at the University of British Columbia, it is a sophisticated music notation software available on any platform. NoteAbility combines both musical intelligence and graphical flexibility in a direct and intuitive graphical user interface.


Spectral analysis and resynthesis software

Free software for the sinusoidal partial editing analysis and resynthesis.

The IRCAM software for sound analysis and resynthesis

Techniques And Paradigms for Expressive Synthesis, Transformation, and Rendering of Environmental Audio  (also known as taps) Tapestrea (or taps) is a unified framework for interactively analyzing, transforming and synthesizing complex sounds.

Sound synthesis and processing audio software

Software and libraries

Bol Processor
Bol Processor 2 (BP2) is a program for music composition and improvisation with real-time MIDI, MIDI file, and Csound output.

Does it need a presentation?

C-sound 1992 Historical Vercoe Manual

Csound 4.xx Manuals

CsoundAV Manual
by Gabriel Maldonado

Free "SoundLab"
Realtime generator for the simulation of the stationary part of musical instrument.
Institut für Wiener Klangstil (Musikalische Akustik)

Home page of Cecilia
Cecilia is an environment for music and signal-processing that uses Csound as its underlying audio processing engine.

jMax project page


Does it need a presentation?

Max Objects Database

IRCAM-Max/MSP Libraries

Max Patch Librarian, web page by Trevor Henthorn

Sound Synthesis by Physical Models

Musical Calculator (+ handbook as PDF-file)
The Musical Calculator is a usefull plug-in, programmed by Werner Winkler.
Its features include: transposition (all clefs) graphic represantation of notes relation between frequency, temperature and wavelength. Institut für Wiener Klangstil (Musikalische Akustik)

RTC-lib, Real Time Composition Library
Software library for algorithmic composition in Max/MSP/Jitter copyleft 1992-2007 by Karlheinz Essl and others.

Max/MSP standalones/patches and other experimental audio applications for MacOSX.


Pure Data
Pure Data (or Pd) is a graphical programming language developed by Miller Puckette in the 1990s for the creation of interactive computer music and multimedia works

Allows users to manipulate a small portion of a sound wave (one 44th approximately or 1000/44100 of a second). This is commonly referred to as a “wave table”.

Freeware, open-source modular software synthesizer for Windows and MAC.

Software internet sites

Site where you can search the Web for sound effects and musical instrument samples.

Internet site: Il mondo dell'audio e del MIDI in GNU/Linux

Microtonal Software links

Mac Music

Music software - Alphabetical listings

Sound spatialization software

Real-time application for sound spatialization in Max/MSP

Software for recording and editing audio, audio - midi sequencers and editors.

Ardour, free digital audio workstation

A Free, Cross-Platform Sound Editor

Anvil Studio
Anvil Studio ™ is a free Windows XP/2000/ME/98/95 program designed for people who want to record music with MIDI and Audio equipment, compose music for MIDI and Audio equipment, Sequence music with MIDI equipment, or play with music using a computer and sound card.

(Pro-tools, Digi 002...)

Ecasound - multitrack audio processing tool
Ecasound is a software package designed for multitrack audio processing.

Freeware, open-source audio and MIDI sequencer, score editor, and general-purpose music composition system for Linux.

Mark of the unicorn: audio hardware and software
(Digital Performer, Motu...)

Samplers and VST instruments

Preparation P Prepared Piano VSTi

Tom LowPass Filter VST
Simple resonant low pass filter.

Sound utilities

Jack OS X
A Jack audio connection kit implementation for Mac OS

Applications using JACK

Using (Mac OS X)